Detail for Berberine
Basic Information
DrugID 16
DrugName Berberine
DrugDetail Berberine is a quaternary ammonium salt from the protoberberine group of isoquinoline alkaloids, an alkaloid from Hydrastis canadensis L., Berberidaceae. It is also found in many other plants. It is relatively toxic parenterally, but has been used orally for various parasitic and fungal infections and as antidiarrheal.

Indication As a traditional medicine or dietary supplement, berberine has shown some activity against fungal infections, Candida albicans, yeast, parasites, and bacterial/viral infections. Berberine seems to exert synergistic effects with fluconazole even in drug-resistant Candida albicans infections. Some research has been undertaken into possible use against MRSA infection. Berberine is considered antibiotic. When applied in vitro and in combination with methoxyhydnocarpin, an inhibitor of multidrug resistance pumps, berberine inhibits growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Microcystis aeruginosa.

Structure Click to see the orginal picture.
Drug Name PMIDLink Reference
Ketoconazole Zhang L.X., Yan K.Z., Zhang Y., Huang R., Bian J., Zheng C.S., Sun H.X., Chen Z.H., Sun N., An R., Min F.G., Zhao W.B., Zhuo Y., You J.L., Song Y.J., Yu Z.Y., Liu Z.H., Yang K.Q., Gao H., Dai H.Q., Zhang X.L., Wang J., Fu C.Z., Pei G., Liu J.T., Zhang S., Goodfellow M., Jiang Y.Y., Kuai J., Zhou G.C., Chen X.P. (2007) High-throughput synergy screening identifies microbial metabolites as combination agents for the treatment of fungal infections. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104:4606-4611. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0609370104.
Fluconazole Quan H., Cao Y.Y., Xu Z., Zhao J.X., Gao P.H., Qin X.F., Jiang Y.Y. (2006) Potent in vitro synergism of fluconazole and berberine chloride against clinical isolates of Candida albicans resistant to fluconazole. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 50:1096-1099. DOI: 10.1128/aac.50.3.1096-1099.2006.
PathWay Name Path Picture
Biosynthesis of alkaloids derived from shikimate pathway - Reference pathway
Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites - Reference pathway (KO)
Isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis - Reference pathway (KO)