105 Drugs, 1225 Drug Targets, 210 Drug Interaction!
Given the biological complexity of disease and the redundancy of biological systems, drug combinations have been widely used in biomedical research and medical practices for treating various diseases since a long time before (Chou, 2006; Chou, 2008; Lee et al., 2007). Traditional Chinese medicines and well-established treatments for AIDS, cancer, and infectious diseases are vivid examples (Biavatti, 2009; Chou, 2006). It has often been observed that a single drug with a single target generally has less effect for disease treatment than a drug combination targeting various targets simultaneously (Biavatti, 2009).
The history of drug combination studies can be traced back to Huangdi Neijing, China, 1900 years ago. In the last 100 years, drug combination studies have obtained great achievement. Landmark works include Loewe additive equation (Loewe and Muischnek, 1926), median-effect equation (Chou, 1976, 1977), combination index equation (Chou and Talalay, 1983, 1984), and so on
Research on drug combinations is critical in modern medicine, both for drug development, and medicine improvement (Fitzgerald et al., 2006; Keith et al., 2005; Yeh and Kishony, 2007), and can also be used to infer relationships between the targets in a biological network (Lehar et al., 2007). For drug combination, multiple drugs may affect multiple targets, multiple subpopulations, or multiple diseases simultaneously (Chou, 2006; Zimmermann et al., 2007). Drug combination can increase the efficacy of the therapeutic effect, and decrease the drug dosage therefore reducing drug toxicity and side-effects (Chou, 2006). Because biological systems are less able to compensate for the simultaneous actions of two or more drugs, the development of drug resistance can be slowed by combining drugs with minimal cross-resistance (Biavatti, 2009; Chou, 2006; Fitzgerald et al., 2006; Levy and Marshall, 2004; Zimmermann et al., 2007). Considering these benefits, it is not surprising that drug combinations have been widely used in the treatment for complex diseases (Chou, 2006).
- •the original ASDCD database was released @ 2011-05-01
- •drug chemical structures were added @ 2011-06-26
- •drug target interactions were added @2012-01-01
- •drug-related pathways were added @2012-04-03
- •drug indication informations were added @2012-08-04
- •more synergistic drug combinations were added @2013-01-01
- •drug target interactions and drug-related pathways were further updated @2013-05-01
- Xing Chen et al. ASDCD: Antifungal Synergistic Drug Combination Database. PLOS ONE. 2014 9(1): e86499 (SCI 3.73).